INTRODUCTION
• Types of article
• Contact details for submission
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Studies in humans and animals
• Informed consent and patient details
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trial results
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Queries
• Peer review
• Double anonymized review
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Tables
• Video
• Supplementary material
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES




The Journal of Cartilage & Joint Preservation (JCJP) is a fully Open Access journal of the ICRS, published by Elsevier. It will capture the best clinical, translational and basic science articles in the rapidly growing area of cartilage research discovery and expertise. JCJP will publish peer-reviewed original research articles and state-of-the-art reviews, as well as techniques videos showing the applications of new findings to the care of patients in need of cartilage repair and joint preservation. Because it sits at the intersection of basic and applied research, JCJP will bring important new findings to the toolbox of all researchers and clinicians involved in cartilage repair, development, function, degeneration, transplantation and rehabilitation, and with a strong new emphasis on joint preservation, including cartilage restoration techniques such as microfracture surgery, drilling, abrasion arthroplasty, autologous chondrocyte implementation, osteochondral auto/allograft transplantation, and regenerative medicine- based techniques.

IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT DISCLOSURES:
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will ultimately be published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures on the ICMJE form the authors complete at submission which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.

All submissions to Journal of Cartilage & Joint Preservation must comply with these Instructions for Authors. Studies should be in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations at the authors' institutions and also in compliance with Food and Drug Administration guidelines. All manuscripts will be subject to peer review. Letters to the Editor and comments on the Journal's content or policies are always welcome and encouraged.

All manuscripts are to be submitted electronically through the JCJP online submission and review system website, www.editorialmanager.com/jcjp (details in Submission section below).

This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals created by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Types of article

There are several article types, with varying level of maximum word counts and references. Original Research, Narrative Review, Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis, State of the Art, Technical Note with Video, Case Study, Brief Report, Invited Commentary, White Paper, and Letter to the editor.

Requirement for manuscripts reporting on biologic treatments: All papers must report on MIBO criteria (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28509821) when describing the use of PRP and/or MSCs as a primary treatment. Papers not reporting this minimum criteria will be automatically returned to author.

Original Research: Research can be translational/ basic sciences studies in areas ranging from cellular / molecular biology studies to preclinical animal studies, and clinical research can encompass clinical outcomes to cadaveric studies to diagnostic imaging. These can include negative studies, where the message has clinical significance.
Includes a structured abstract with introduction, objectives, methods, results, conclusions. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest and author contributor roles. Word count should be 4000; abstract no more than 250 words.

Narrative Review: High-quality, timely reviews and perspectives covering important topics within the entire field of cartilage repair and joint preservation. Results are of a qualitative rather than a quantitative meaning. Narrative Reviews should make the search criteria and the criteria for inclusion explicit. The review should critically evaluate the specific topic of research. Includes a structured abstract with introduction, objectives, methods, results, conclusions. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest and author contributor roles. Word count should be 6000; abstract no more than 250 words.

Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis: The title of the article must contain the words systematic review, meta-analysis, or both. The manuscript is a structured summary which includes: structured abstract, background; objectives; data sources; study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions; study appraisal and synthesis methods; results; limitations; conclusions and implications of key findings; systematic review registration number. It is recommended that you download the PRISMA checklist: http://prisma-statement.org/. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest and author contributor roles.Word count should be 6000; abstract no more than 250 words.

State of the Art (By invitation only): Award lectures, keynote addresses, and State of the Art lectures at cartilage symposia. A state-of-the-art article considers mainly the most current research in cartilage. It often summarizes current and emerging educational trends, research priorities and standardizations. The article is a synthesis of current thinking in the field and in the ICRS community. It may offer new perspectives on an issue or point out an area in need of further research. May include an unstructured abstract. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest and author contributor roles. Word count should be 8000; abstract no more than 250 words.



Technical Note with Video: Educational article providing practical tutorial on technique, tools, methodologies and approaches in cartilage repair and joint preservation. Briefly set out the reasons you are presenting your technique, using Figures and Videos and describe step-by-step. Mention name and manufacturer of specific products (required in detail) so others can perform the technique the way you do it. In discussion section, address the advantages, risks and/or limitations, of this technique. Submit narrated video with the article. All videos are subject to peer review. A sound-track is required. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest, patient-informed consent and author contributor roles. Word count should be 1500; abstract no more than 250 words.

Case Report: A single case report must have extraordinary educational value to the readers to be considered for publication; JCJP encourages case series article submissions (see article type below). The case finding must be novel as JCJP does not typically accept cases where 1 or 2 outcomes are associated, since the outcomes are often coincidentally rather than causally related. Restrict the abstract to 150 words and highlight the unique features of the case. In sections identified as Introduction, Case Report, and Discussion and in fewer than 1,500 words, introduce the topic, present the case, and discuss its novelty and educational value. Authors should limit references to 10 citations and include an Informed Consent Statement. Case Reports should adhere to CARE (CAse REport) guidelines (https://www.care-statement.org/) and indicate in the manuscript that they have done so. Please use this checklist as reference: https://www.care-statement.org/checklist. There is an online tool for case report authors: https://care-writer.com/.

Case Series: Case Series articles present a series of unique cases (at least 5) with clear learning points and include a review of the related literature. These can describe complication cases with lessons learned / pearls for avoidance. Case Series follow CARE guidelines (Gagnier, J., et al. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guidelines development. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2013, 7:223) and are typically fewer than 2,000 words. The Case Series must include a structured abstract with an Introduction, the Case Series Presentation, and a Conclusion. The body of the article should include an Introduction, Patient Information, Timeline, Diagnostic Assessment, Therapeutic Intervention, Follow-up and Outcomes, Discussion, and Informed Consent Statement. Please use this checklist for Case Series.

Brief Report: Short and complete reports of novel research findings of high importance to the field. Reports of preliminary experiments are unacceptable. Brief reports should be especially significant and timely and reach a clear conclusion. Includes an unstructured abstract. Must include references in AMA style, funding, Conflict of interest and author contributor roles.

Commentary (by invitation only): Typically highlights findings of a paper in the same issue, presented in a wider scientific and clinical context, usually written by an associate editor for the journal. This does not require a structured abstract. Must include references in AMA style, funding, and Conflict of interest. Word count should be 1600 with a 75 word Introduction.

Editorial: Written by the Editor in Chief or an invited Guest Editor, which introduces the issue or highlights an important ICRS topic. If relevant, include references in AMA style, funding, and Conflict of interest.

Guideline/White Paper (by invitation only): A White Paper is a short document (2,500-3,500 words) to state an organization's policy, position, or philosophy about a subject or to pose a problem or question and then answer that question with information or a proposed solution. A white paper can serve to increase understanding of a particular issue, provide information to aid in decision making, or present a professional perspective. Often, a White Paper explains the results or conclusions resulting from some organized committee, research collaboration, or design and development effort. Each White aper will have the following components: Title, Keywords, Abstract, Introduction, Problem statement, Proposed solutions, Future direction and long term focus and Recommendations. An example of a white paper: an ICRS patient registry overview, in which registry data indicates a problem, with proposed solutions and future direction.

Letter to the Editor: A Letter to the Editor must reference the original source, and a response to the letter must reference the Letter to the Editor in the first few paragraphs. Letters to the Editor can use an arbitrary title, but a response must cite the title of the Letter: e.g., Response to [title of letter]. Letters must be submitted within 6 months of the publication of the original article. Conflict of interest needs to be included. It should aim for no more than 400 words and 5 references.

Contact details for submission

To submit your paper, please visit https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcjp. For author inquiries, please visit our Support Center. For details on society awards, conference abstracts or guidelines, please visit https://cartilage.org.




Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (as this Journal is double-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.

Preprints

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Please visit Elsevier's policy regarding authorship: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/policies-and-guidelines/credit-author-statement.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Registration of clinical trials

Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (see more information on this). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Please ensure your manuscript document includes line numbering.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcjp.

Suggesting reviewers

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential reviewers.

You should not suggest reviewers who are colleagues, or who have co-authored or collaborated with you during the last three years. Editors do not invite reviewers who have potential competing interests with the authors. Further, in order to provide a broad and balanced assessment of the work, and ensure scientific rigor, please suggest diverse candidate reviewers who are located in different countries/regions from the author group. Also consider other diversity attributes e.g. gender, race and ethnicity, career stage, etc. Finally, you should not include existing members of the journal's editorial team, of whom the journal are already aware.

Note: the editor decides whether or not to invite your suggested reviewers.




Queries

For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center.

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Double anonymized review

This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements, patient consent, statment, and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Article structure

Please see each article type for requirements.

For Technical video articles:

Introduction: Briefly set out the reasons you are presenting your technique.

Surgical technique: Cite Figures and Videos and describe step-by-step (consider Tables), and mention name and manufacturer of specific products (required in detail) so others can do it exactly the way you do it.

Discussion: Be concise. Consider the advantages, and risks and/or limitations, of this technique in the Discussion.

References: The goal is recent references and not having a lot of references. Follow AMA style for references. The reference list, figure legends, and tables must appear at the end of the manuscript.

Figure and Video Legends: Provide a separate, fully detailed legend for each figure and each part of a multipart figure. Figure legends must "stand alone" (i.e., contain a complete, take-home, educational message, as if a reader viewed only that Figure without looking at any others or without reading the text). Labels are always helpful. Please be sure to mention patient position, side, and viewing portal or MRI orientation as appropriate. All abbreviations and symbols used on figures must be defined here. Legends for videos should contain enough detail to guide viewers in seeing the most important points to be learned.

Tables: Tables, each on a separate page, should be neatly typed with a short descriptive title above the tabular data and any notes below. define all abbreviations.

Figures: Upload your figures, each as a separate file, along with the rest of your manuscript. Do not include figures in the text document and do not upload your text as a PDF.

Video Submission: JCJP Techniques requires authors to submit narrated video with their Technical Notes. All videos are subject to peer review. We expect professional quality and narration, regardless of production method. A sound track is required.

These formats for video will be accepted:
  • MP4 (.mp4)
  • QuickTime (.mov)
  • MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 (.mpg)
Requirements:
  • Each video must start with a slide listing the authors' conflicts of interest.
  • Submit a single video per manuscript, not multi-part videos.
  • Maximum length of videos is 4.5 minutes.
  • Video file may not exceed 100 MB.
  • Please ZIP the file and upload the zipped file to hasten the upload time.
  • A complete legend for the video must be included in the manuscript.
  • Video must be cited in the text of your manuscript just like a figure.


Subdivision - unnumbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results

Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author, along with the credential for the author (e.g., MD, DVM, PhD, etc) and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Please identify any source of support in the form of grants, equipment, or other items. The title page file must be in a Word format.
Disclaimer. List here (on the title page) any financial remuneration the authors, or any member of their family, may have received related to the subject of the article. If no such financial biases exist for any author, state "none".

Authors are to provide a statement documenting patient consent obtained, or an exemption statement from the authors institutional review board. If consent is unobtainable (not refused) for one of these potentially identifiable cases, please make every effort to anonymize the case report and include a statement regarding the circumstances making consent unobtainable in a cover letter to the editor. Please also include information about Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Ethical Committee approval related to the study, including the name of the IRB providing approval and the study number.

Please also include on your title page Acknowledgments of those who have contributed to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship. They may be named and their contribution described. Such persons must have given their permission to be so named, because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and the conclusions reached. Technical help may also be acknowledged.

Upload the title page on the EM system as Title Page. Do not include the above information in your manuscript text which for review purposes should be blinded.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.

For ease of browsing, the Graphical Abstract should have a clear start and end, preferably "reading" from top to bottom or left to right. Avoid using too many elements or images. Refer to the template in the Editorial Manager submission site.
  • Image size: If using PowerPoint, size slide for widescreen (16:9 ratio) with high-resolution images (minimum of 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi). If using another program, provide images with a minimum of 531 ? 1328 pixels (H?W) and a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. For larger images, use 200 ? 500 pixels (HxW).
  • Font: Arial or Calibri fonts only with 18-pt size or larger.
  • File type: preferred file types are PowerPoint, TIFF, or EPS.
  • Save the image file name as Graphical Abstract for uploading.
  • Use exact title of accepted manuscript as the title.
  • Place author's last name and the year of publication at the bottom.
  • Please include the major conclusion or take-away point for the reader.
Find icons and/or pictograms to use in Graphical Abstracts from unaffiliated services such as:

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Acknowledgements

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and units

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents for further information.

Image manipulation

Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, Crossref and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Eleventh Edition.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 Accessed 13 March 2003.
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.




Availability of accepted article

This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the Journal Pre-proofs (both in HTML and PDF format), which have undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but are not yet the definitive versions of record. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.




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